Charts showing a progression from ape-like creature to man are extremely common and leave readers with the impression that the search for man’s ancestors is essentially finished. These types of charts seldom acknowledge the massive body of evidence showing discrepancies and outright fraud which has accompanied the search for man’s ancestry. It is beyond the scope of this article to refute each of the supposed fossil fragments in this ancestral line leading to man, but a few highlights will be listed. For a balanced viewing of the evidence concerning our origin read Bones of Contention, A Creationist Assessment of Human Fossils by Martin Lubenow. It is an extremely well documented assessment of all of the fossils which have been placed in the line of human lineage and clearly shows the bias which enters into both the arrangement and acceptance of fossil evidence.
In his book Martin Lubenow shows that those fossils which do not fit into the accepted evolutionary time frame are either ignored or reclassified. The only alternative is to discard the entire evolutionary faith. For instance, in 1978 associates of Mary Leakey found human footprints in Tanzania at a rock level which should not have contained these prints. Russell Tuttle of the University of Chicago was asked to study the footprints and came to the conclusion that the footprints, “…are indistinguishable from those of habitually barefoot Homo sapiens (modern humans).”1 Yet, because they were found in deeply buried rock, they were arbitrarily assumed to be from an apelike creature in the process of becoming a modern human!
Another example is the skull labeled KNM-ER 1470 which was found by Richard Leakey in 1972 in Kenya. This skull had a 800 cc brain capacity. It is not widely known that the cranial capacity for modern humans range from 700 to 2200 cc and that cranial capacity has absolutely nothing to do with intelligence. The skull had a modern appearance including a high dome, thin cranial walls, and evidence of a Broca’s area (speech center). Yet because the skull was found in a stratum which should have contained no modern humans, the fragments were pieced together to give the skull a very ape-like appearance. It could have just as easily have been pieced together to look completely human. Roger Lewin describes the following comment by Michael Day as he and Richard Leakey were studying the skull fragments, “You can hold the [upper jaw] forward, and give it a long face, or you can tuck it in, making a short face,” he recalls. “How you held it really depended on your preconceptions.” Without a preconceived bias that evolution is a fact, the entire group of humanoids known as Homo habilis could just as easily be classified a variation of modern humans.
Martin Lubenow spends the largest amount of space in his 295 page expose’ on human fossils discussing the group known as Homo erectus. There are over 200 known fossil fragments which fit into this category. However, almost all of these fossils can be considered well within the range of human variation currently present on our planet. In reality there is no compelling reason they should not be considered mere variations of the modern human family.
Only the australopithecine is left as a potential human ancestor once the other possibilities are fairly evaluated. These creatures are so ape-like that they bear little or no resemblance to humans. They are simply the bones of some extinct ape-like creature. The bones truly are in contention with the evolutionary theory of human origins.
1. R.H. Tuttle and D.M. Webb, “The Pattern of Little Feet”, Amer. Journal of Physical Anthropology 78:2, (2/89):316.
2. Roger Lewin, Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origin, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987, pg. 160.