Rivers are carrying salt into the world’s oceans at a known rate and the sodium (salt) level in the oceans is far below saturation. Oceanographers have determined, by various means, that, at most, only 27% of this sodium, which is flowing into the ocean, manages to get out of the ocean each year. Therefore every year the concentration of salt in the oceans increases slightly. All of the salt in the world’s oceans can be accounted for in just 1/50 the time assumed available by evolution1.
Helium is being released into our atmosphere at a known rate by radioactive decay, yet all of the helium in the atmosphere can be accounted for in 1/2500 of the time assumed by evolution. This dating method accounts for all of the helium escaping into space and assumes no starting helium.2
Measurements indicate that the total energy of the earth’s magnetic field has decreased by a factor of approximately 2.7 in the last 1000 years. One creationist model explains this rapid decrease without resorting to questionable dynamo theories and explains at the same time rapid reversals of the earth’s magnetic field. The implication is that the earth is less than 10,000 years old.3
The inner stars of galaxies rotate faster than the outer stars. If spiral galaxies were more than a few hundred million years old they should be a featureless smear instead of a distinct spiral. For 50 years this problem has been known but no plausible explanation has been found.4 The best current explanation involving “density waves” from supernovas has conceptual problems; besides that, recent high resolution views inside of spiral galaxies have rendered this explanation essentially impossible.
These young age indicators are not based on just one technique but cover a wide variety of scientific disciplines. They are just a few of hundreds of dating methods, which give a wide variety of possible ages.The vast majority of methods yield dates far too short for evolution to have taken place. This leaves those scientists who are intent on maintaining extreme ages for the earth in the unenviable position of trying to explain away the majority of the data while basing their position on the acceptance of the minority of the data.
No dating method provides an absolute date for the age of the earth, but each sets an upper limit. The lower limit of the age of the earth is approximately 5000 years because this is when historical records began – all other methods are based on unprovable assumptions. The graph below compares the results of several dating methods. Notice that the Biblical age (approximately 6000 years) falls within the range of all of the methods whereas the evolution assumption (5 billion years) is outside of the possible range for all methods except radiometric dating. Seldom publicized problems with radiometric dating will be discussed in future articles.
1. Austin, S.A., Humphreys, R.D., “The Sea’s missing Salt: A Dilemma for Evolutionists”, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Creationism, Vol II, 1991.
2. Vardiman, L., The Age of the Earth’s Atmosphere: a study of the helium flux, ICR (1990).
3. Humphreys, R.D., “Physical mechanism for reversals of the earth’s magnetic field during the
flood”, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Creationism, Vol. II, 1991.
4. Scheffler, H., Elsasser, H., Physics of the Galaxy and Interstellar Matter, Springer-Verlag Berlin pp. 352-353, 401-413, 1987.